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Presidents in order

Presidents of the United States in Order.

The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by the people through an Electoral College (or by the House of Representatives, should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person).

Since the office was established in 1789, 44 people have served as president. The first, George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms in office, and is counted as the nation's 22nd and 24th president. Thus the incumbent, Donald Trump, is the nation's 45th president. William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office, dying 31 days after taking office in 1841. Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[1]

Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison,[2] Zachary Taylor,[3] Warren G. Harding,[4] and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln,[5] James A. Garfield,[5][6] William McKinley,[7] and John F. Kennedy), and one resigned (Richard Nixon).[8] John Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency intra-term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his own presidency, as opposed to a caretaker president. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution put Tyler's precedent into law in 1967. It also established a mechanism by which an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill a vacancy under this Provision when he appointed Gerald Ford to the office. Later, Ford became the second to do so when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him. Previously, an intra-term vacancy was left unfilled.

Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties. The Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it came into force in 1789, there were no parties. Soon after the 1st Congress convened, factions began forming around dominant Washington Administration officials, such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never to be affiliated with a political party.[9] Since Washington, every president has been affiliated with a political party at the time they assumed office.

List of presidents

Unaffiliated (2)       Federalist (1)       Democratic-Republican (4)       Democratic (15)       Whig (4)       Republican (19)       National Union (2)
Presidency[a] President Prior office[b] Party[c] Term[d] Vice President
1 April 30, 1789

[e]

March 4, 1797

George Washington

1732–1799
(Lived: 67 years)
[10][11][12]

Commander-in-Chief

of the
Continental Army
(1775–1783)

   Unaffiliated

[9]

(1788–89)

1
(1789)

John Adams

[f][g]

(1792)

2
(1793)

2 March 4, 1797


March 4, 1801

John Adams

1735–1826
(Lived: 90 years)
[13][14][15]

1st

Vice President of the United States

Federalist (1796)

3
(1797)

Thomas Jefferson

[h]

3 March 4, 1801


March 4, 1809

Thomas Jefferson

1743–1826
(Lived: 83 years)
[16][17][18]

2nd

Vice President of the United States

Democratic-

Republican

(1800)

4
(1801)

Aaron Burr

March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1805

(1804)

5
(1805)

George Clinton

March 4, 1805 – March 4, 1809

4 March 4, 1809


March 4, 1817

James Madison

1751–1836
(Lived: 85 years)
[19][20][21]

5th

United States Secretary of State
(1801–1809)

Democratic-

Republican

(1808)

6
(1809)

George Clinton

March 4, 1809 – April 20, 1812
(Died in office)

Office vacant

(Balance of Clinton's term)

(1812)

7
(1813)

Elbridge Gerry

March 4, 1813 –November 23, 1814
(Died in office)

Office vacant

(Balance of Gerry's term)

5 March 4, 1817


March 4, 1825

James Monroe

1758–1831
(Lived: 73 years)
[22][23][24]

7th

United States Secretary of State
(1811–1817)

Democratic-

Republican

(1816)

8
(1817)

Daniel D. Tompkins
(1820)

9
(1821)

6 March 4, 1825


March 4, 1829

John Quincy Adams

1767–1848
(Lived: 80 years)
[25][26][27]

8th

United States Secretary of State
(1817–1825)

Democratic-

Republican

(1824)

10
(1825)

John C. Calhoun
7 March 4, 1829


March 4, 1837

Andrew Jackson

1767–1845
(Lived: 78 years)
[28][29][30]

U.S. Senatorfrom Tennessee

(1823–1825)

Democratic (1828)

11
(1829)

John C. Calhoun

[i]
March 4, 1829 –December 28, 1832
(Resigned from office)

Office vacant

(Balance of Calhoun's term)

(1832)

12
(1833)

Martin Van Buren

March 4, 1833 – March 4, 1837

8 March 4, 1837


March 4, 1841

Martin Van Buren

1782–1862
(Lived: 79 years)
[31][32][33]

8th

Vice President of the United States

Democratic (1836)

13
(1837)

Richard Mentor Johnson
9 March 4, 1841


April 4, 1841
(Died in office)

William Henry Harrison

1773–1841
(Lived: 68 years)
[34][35][36]

United States Minister to Colombia

(1828–1829)

Whig (1840)

14
(1841)
(1841)

[j]

John Tyler

(Succeeded to presidency)

10 April 4, 1841

[k]

March 4, 1845

John Tyler

1790–1862
(Lived: 71 years)
[37][38][39]

10th

Vice President of the United States

Whig

April 4, 1841 –September 13, 1841

Office vacant
Unaffiliated

September 13, 1841– March 4, 1845
[l]

11 March 4, 1845


March 4, 1849

James K. Polk

1795–1849
(Lived: 53 years)
[40][41][42]

9th

Governor of Tennessee
(1839–1841)

Democratic (1844)

15
(1845)

George M. Dallas
12

March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
(Died in office)

Zachary Taylor

1784–1850
(Lived: 65 years)
[43][44][45]

Major General of the 1st Infantry Regiment

United States Army
(1846–1849)
(No prior elected office)

Whig (1848)

16
(1849)
(1850)

[j]

Millard Fillmore

(Succeeded to presidency)

13 July 9, 1850

[m]

March 4, 1853

Millard Fillmore

1800–1874
(Lived: 74 years)
[46][47][48]

12th

Vice President of the United States

Whig Office vacant
14 March 4, 1853


March 4, 1857

Franklin Pierce

1804–1869
(Lived: 64 years)
[49][50][51]

Brigadier General of the 9th Infantry

United States Army
(1847–1848)

Democratic (1852)

17
(1853)

William R. King

March 4 – April 18, 1853
(Died in office)

Office vacant

(Balance of King's term)

15 March 4, 1857


March 4, 1861

James Buchanan

1791–1868
(Lived: 77 years)
[52][53][54]

United States Minister to the

Court of St James's
(1853–1856)

Democratic (1856)

18
(1857)

John C. Breckinridge
16 March 4, 1861


April 15, 1865
(Assassinated)

Abraham Lincoln

1809–1865
(Lived: 56 years)
[55][56][57]

U.S. Representative for Illinois' 7th District

(1847–1849)

Republican

(National Union)
[n]

(1860)

19
(1861)

Hannibal Hamlin

March 4, 1861 – March 4, 1865

(1864)

20
(1865)
(1865)

[j]

Andrew Johnson

March 4 – April 15, 1865
(Succeeded to presidency)

17 April 15, 1865


March 4, 1869

Andrew Johnson

1808–1875
(Lived: 66 years)
[58][59][60]

16th

Vice President of the United States

National Union

April 15, 1865 –c. 1868

Office vacant
Democratic

c. 1868 –March 4, 1869
[o]

18

March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877

Ulysses S. Grant

1822–1885
(Lived: 63 years)
[61][62][63]

Commanding General of the U.S. Army

(1864–1869)
(No prior elected office)

Republican (1868)

21
(1869)

Schuyler Colfax

March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1873

(1872)

22
(1873)

Henry Wilson

March 4, 1873 –November 22, 1875
(Died in office)

Office vacant

(Balance of Wilson's term)

19 March 4, 1877


March 4, 1881

Rutherford B. Hayes

1822–1893
(Lived: 70 years)
[64][65][66]

29th & 32nd

Governor of Ohio
(1868–1872 & 1876–1877)

Republican (1876)

23
(1877)

William A. Wheeler
20 March 4, 1881


September 19, 1881
(Assassinated)

James A. Garfield

1831–1881
(Lived: 49 years)
[67][68][69]

U.S. Representative for Ohio's 19th District

(1863–1881)

Republican (1880)

24
(1881)
(1881)

[j]

Chester A. Arthur

(Succeeded to presidency)

21 September 19, 1881

[p]

March 4, 1885

Chester A. Arthur

1829–1886
(Lived: 57 years)
[70][71][72]

20th

Vice President of the United States

Republican Office vacant
22 March 4, 1885


March 4, 1889

Grover Cleveland

1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[73][74]

28th

Governor of New York
(1883–1885)

Democratic (1884)

25
(1885)

Thomas A. Hendricks

March 4 – November 25, 1885
(Died in office)

Office vacant

(Balance of Hendricks' term)

23 March 4, 1889


March 4, 1893

Benjamin Harrison

1833–1901
(Lived: 67 years)
[75][76][77]

U.S. Senatorfrom Indiana

(1881–1887)

Republican (1888)

26
(1889)

Levi P. Morton
24 March 4, 1893


March 4, 1897

Grover Cleveland

1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[73][74]

22nd

President of the United States
(1885–1889)

Democratic (1892)

27
(1893)

Adlai Stevenson
25 March 4, 1897


September 14, 1901
(Assassinated)

William McKinley

1843–1901
(Lived: 58 years)
[78][79][80]

39th

Governor of Ohio
(1892–1896)

Republican (1896)

28
(1897)

Garret Hobart

March 4, 1897 –November 21, 1899
(Died in office)

Office vacant

(Balance of Hobart's term)

(1900)

29
(1901)
(1901)

[j]

Theodore Roosevelt

March 4 – September 14, 1901
(Succeeded to presidency)

26 September 14, 1901


March 4, 1909

Theodore Roosevelt

1858–1919
(Lived: 60 years)
[81][82][83]

25th

Vice President of the United States

Republican Office vacant

September 14, 1901 –March 4, 1905

(1904)

30
(1905)

Charles W. Fairbanks

March 4, 1905 – March 4, 1909

27 March 4, 1909


March 4, 1913

William Howard Taft

1857–1930
(Lived: 72 years)
[84][85][86]

42nd

United States Secretary of War
(1904–1908)

Republican (1908)

31
(1909)

James S. Sherman

March 4, 1909 – October 30, 1912
(Died in office)

Office vacant

(Balance of Sherman's term)

28 March 4, 1913


March 4, 1921

Woodrow Wilson

1856–1924
(Lived: 67 years)
[87][88][89]

34th

Governor of New Jersey
(1911–1913)

Democratic (1912)

32
(1913)

Thomas R. Marshall
(1916)

33
(1917)

29 March 4, 1921


August 2, 1923
(Died in office)

Warren G. Harding

1865–1923
(Lived: 57 years)
[90][91][92]

U.S. Senatorfrom Ohio

(1915–1921)

Republican (1920)

34
(1921)
(1923)

[j]

Calvin Coolidge

(Succeeded to presidency)

30 August 2, 1923

[q]

March 4, 1929

Calvin Coolidge

1872–1933
(Lived: 60 years)
[93][94][95]

29th

Vice President of the United States

Republican Office vacant

August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1925

(1924)

35
(1925)

Charles G. Dawes

March 4, 1925 – March 4, 1929

31

March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933

Herbert Hoover

1874–1964
(Lived: 90 years)
[96][97][98]

3rd

United States Secretary of Commerce
(1921–1928)
(No prior elected office)

Republican (1928)

36
(1929)

Charles Curtis
32 March 4, 1933


April 12, 1945
(Died in office)

Franklin D. Roosevelt

1882–1945
(Lived: 63 years)
[99][100][101]

44th

Governor of New York
(1929–1932)

Democratic (1932)

37
(1933)

John Nance Garner

March 4, 1933 – January 20, 1941
[r]

(1936)

38
(1937)

(1940)

39
(1941)

Henry A. Wallace

January 20, 1941 –January 20, 1945

(1944)

40
(1945)
(1945)

[j]

Harry S. Truman

January 20 – April 12, 1945
(Succeeded to presidency)

33 April 12, 1945


January 20, 1953

Harry S. Truman

1884–1972
(Lived: 88 years)
[102][103][104]

34th

Vice President of the United States

Democratic Office vacant

April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1949

(1948)

41
(1949)

Alben W. Barkley

January 20, 1949 –January 20, 1953

34

January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961

Dwight D. Eisenhower

1890–1969
(Lived: 78 years)
[105][106][107]

Supreme Allied Commander Europe

(1949–1952)
(No prior elected office)

Republican (1952)

42
(1953)

Richard Nixon
(1956)

43
(1957)

35 January 20, 1961


November 22, 1963
(Assassinated)

John F. Kennedy

1917–1963
(Lived: 46 years)
[108][109][110]

U.S. Senatorfrom Massachusetts

(1953–1960)

Democratic (1960)

44
(1961)
(1963)

[j]

Lyndon B. Johnson

(Succeeded to presidency)

36 November 22, 1963


January 20, 1969

Lyndon B. Johnson

1908–1973
(Lived: 64 years)
[111][112]

37th

Vice President of the United States

Democratic Office vacant

November 22, 1963 –January 20, 1965

(1964)

45
(1965)

Hubert Humphrey

January 20, 1965 –January 20, 1969

37 January 20, 1969


August 9, 1974
(Resigned from office)

Richard Nixon

1913–1994
(Lived: 81 years)
[113][114][115]

36th

Vice President of the United States
(1953–1961)

Republican (1968)

46
(1969)

Spiro Agnew

January 20, 1969 –October 10, 1973
(Resigned from office)

(1972)

47
(1973)
(1974)

[j]

Office vacant

October 10 – December 6, 1973

Gerald Ford

December 6, 1973 –August 9, 1974
(Succeeded to presidency)

38 August 9, 1974


January 20, 1977

Gerald Ford

1913–2006
(Lived: 93 years)
[116][117][118]

40th

Vice President of the United States

Republican Office vacant

August 9 – December 19, 1974

Nelson Rockefeller

December 19, 1974 –January 20, 1977

39 January 20, 1977


January 20, 1981

Jimmy Carter

Born 1924
(92 years old)
[119][120][121]

76th

Governor of Georgia
(1971–1975)

Democratic (1976)

48
(1977)

Walter Mondale
40 January 20, 1981


January 20, 1989

Ronald Reagan

1911–2004
(Lived: 93 years)
[122][123][124]

33rd

Governor of California
(1967–1975)

Republican (1980)

49
(1981)

George H. W. Bush
(1984)

50
(1985)

41 January 20, 1989


January 20, 1993

George H. W. Bush

Born 1924
(92 years old)
[125][126][127]

43rd

Vice President of the United States

Republican (1988)

51
(1989)

Dan Quayle
42 January 20, 1993


January 20, 2001

Bill Clinton

Born 1946
(70 years old)
[128][129][130]

40th & 42nd

Governor of Arkansas
(1979–1981 & 1983–1992)

Democratic (1992)

52
(1993)

Al Gore
(1996)

53
(1997)

43 January 20, 2001


January 20, 2009

George W. Bush

Born 1946
(70 years old)
[131][132]

46th

Governor of Texas
(1995–2000)

Republican (2000)

54
(2001)

Dick Cheney
(2004)

55
(2005)

44 January 20, 2009


January 20, 2017

Barack Obama

Born 1961
(55 years old)
[133][134]

U.S. Senatorfrom Illinois

(2005–2008)

Democratic (2008)

56
(2009)

Joe Biden
(2012)

57
(2013)

45

January 20, 2017

Incumbent

Donald Trump

Born 1946
(70 years old)
[135][136]

Chairman of

The Trump Organization
(1971–2017)
(No prior elected office)

Republican (2016)

58
(2017)

Mike Pence

Living former presidents

Main article: Living Presidents of the United States

There are currently five living former presidents. The most recent death of a former president was that of Gerald Ford (served 1974 to 1977) on December 26, 2006 (aged 93 years, 165 days). The most recently serving president to die was Ronald Reagan (served 1981 to 1989) on June 5, 2004 (aged 93 years, 120 days).

Living as of January 2017
President Presidency[a] Date of birth
Jimmy Carter 39 1977–1981 October 1, 1924 (age 92)
George H. W. Bush 41 1989–1993 June 12, 1924 (age 92)
Bill Clinton 42 1993–2001 August 19, 1946 (age 70)
George W. Bush 43 2001–2009 July 6, 1946 (age 70)
Barack Obama 44 2009–2017 August 4, 1961 (age 55)

Jimmy Carter holds the record for having the longest post-presidency of any president (currently 36 years, 9 days).

Subsequent public service

Four presidents held other high U.S. federal offices after leaving the presidency.

President Presidency[a] Subsequent service
John Quincy Adams 6 1825–1829 U.S. Representative from Massachusetts (1831–1848)
Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 U.S. Senator from Tennessee (1875)
Grover Cleveland 22 1885–1889 24th President of the United States (1893–1897)
William Howard Taft 27 1909–1913 10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930)

Several presidents campaigned unsuccessfully for other U.S. state or federal elective offices after leaving the presidency.

President Presidency[a] Office sought unsuccessfully
John Quincy Adams 6 1825–1829 Governor of Massachusetts (1833)
Martin Van Buren 8 1837–1841 President of the United States (1844)
President of the United States (1848)
Millard Fillmore 13 1850–1853 President of the United States (1856)
Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 U.S. Senator from Tennessee (1870)
U.S. Representative from Tennessee (1872)
Ulysses S. Grant 18 1869–1877 President of the United States (1880)
Theodore Roosevelt 26 1901–1909 President of the United States (1912)
Herbert Hoover 31 1929–1933 President of the United States (1940)

Additionally, one former president, John Tyler, served in the government of the Confederate States during the American Civil War. Tyler served in the Provisional Confederate Congress from 1861 to 1862. He was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives in November 1861, but died before he could take his seat.

See also

  • Founding Fathers of the United States
  • Lifespan timeline of Presidents of the United States
  • Presidential portrait (United States)
  • Presidential $1 Coin Program
  • List of Vice Presidents of the United States
  • Biography portal 
  • United States portal 
  • Government of the United States portal

Notes

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d The presidents are numbered according to uninterrupted periods of time served by the same person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A vice president who temporarily becomes acting president under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution is not counted, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  2. Jump up^ Listed here is the most recent office (either with a U.S. state, the federal government, or a private corporation) held by the individual prior to becoming President.
  3. Jump up^ Three presidents are counted above with multiple political affiliations: John Tyler (Whig, Unaffiliated), Abraham Lincoln (Republican, National Union), and Andrew Johnson (National Union, Democratic).
  4. Jump up^ Listed and numbered here are the elections and inaugurations that constitute a presidential term.
  5. Jump up^ Due to logistical delays, instead of being inaugurated on March 4, 1789, the date scheduled for operations of the federal government under the new Constitution to begin, Washington's first inauguration was held 1 month and 26 days later. As a result, his first term was only 1,404 days long (as opposed to the usual 1,461), and was the shortest term for a U.S. president who neither died in office nor resigned.
  6. Jump up^ Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788, nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in 1788–89. When they did develop, during Washington's first term, Adams joined the faction which became the Federalist Party. The elections of 1792 were the first ones in the United States to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis.
  7. Jump up^ Due to logistical delays, Adams assumed the office of Vice President 1 month and 17 days after the March 4, 1789 scheduled start of operations of the new government under the Constitution. As a result, his first term was only 1,413 days long, and was the shortest term for a U.S. vice president who neither died in office nor resigned.
  8. Jump up^ The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and the only one in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected president, and Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president.
  9. Jump up^ John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to oppose the Tariff of 1828 and advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the democratic coalition emerging around Jackson.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Intra-term extraordinary inauguration.
  11. Jump up^ John Tyler was sworn in as President on April 6, 1841.
  12. Jump up^ John Tyler, a former Democrat, ran for vice president on the Whig Party ticket with Harrison in 1840. Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September 1841.
  13. Jump up^ Millard Fillmore was sworn in as President on July 10, 1850.
  14. Jump up^ When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket.
  15. Jump up^ Democrat Andrew Johnson ran for vice president on the National Union Party ticket with Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1864. Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.
  16. Jump up^ Chester Arthur was initially sworn in as President on September 20, 1881, and then again on September 22.
  17. Jump up^ Calvin Coolidge was initially sworn in as President on August 3, 1923, and then again on August 23.
  18. Jump up^ The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution (ratified on January 23, 1933) moved Inauguration Day from March 4 to January 20, beginning in 1937. As a result, Garner's first term in office was 1 month and 12 days shorter than a normal term.

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